Enzymes And Ph Lab Report
Roundup – white stone texture – stone texture by jekky
Regulation Roundup commercial formulations were never submitted to test by the United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA its main active ingredient glyphosate received EPA Toxicity Class of III for oral and inhalation exposure Beyond the glyphosate salts content commercial formulations of Roundup contain surfactants which vary in nature and concentration As a result human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the main active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures Human and mammalian health effects Toxicity By 2000 a review published in a Monsanto sponsored journal conducted by Ian C Munro a member of the Cantox scientific and regulatory consulting firm whose role is defined as to protect client interests while helping our clients achieve milestones and bring products to market concluded that under present and expected conditions of new use there is no potential for Roundup herbicide to pose a health risk to humans Monsanto uses that study as the main source to support Roundup safety for humans A 2008 scientific study has shown that Roundup formulations and metabolic products cause the death of human embryonic placental and umbilical cells in vitro even at low concentrations The effects were not proportional to the main active ingredient concentrations glyphosate but dependent on the nature of the adjuvants used in the Roundup formulation Deliberate ingestion of Roundup in quantities ranging from 85 200 ml has resulted in death within hours of ingestion although it has also been ingested in quantities as large as 500ml with only mild or moderate symptoms following ingestion There is a reasonable correlation between the amount of Roundup ingested and the likelihood of serious systemic sequelae or death Ingestion of gt 85 mL of the concentrated formulation is likely to cause significant toxicity in adults Gastrointestinal corrosive effects with mouth throat and epigastric pain and dysphagia are common Renal and hepatic impairment are also frequent and usually reflect reduced organ perfusion Respiratory distress impaired consciousness pulmonary oedema infiltration on chest x ray shock arrythmias renal failure requiring haemodialysis metabolic acidosis and hyperkalaemia may supervene in severe cases Bradycardia and ventricular arrhythmias are often present pre terminally Dermal exposure to ready to use glyphosate formulations can cause irritation and photo contact dermatitis has been reported occasionally these effects are probably due to the preservative Proxel benzisothiazolin 3 one Severe skin burns are very rare Inhalation is a minor route of exposure but spray mist may cause oral or nasal discomfort an unpleasant taste in the mouth tingling and throat irritation Eye exposure may lead to mild conjunctivitis and superficial corneal injury is possible if irrigation is delayed or inadequate Endocrine disruptor A 2000 in vitro study on mouse MA 10 cells concluded that Roundup inhibited progesterone production by disrupting StAR protein expression A 2005 in vitro study on human placental JEG3 cells concluded that the glyphosate disruption of aromatase is facilitated by adjuvants of the Roundup formulation A 2009 in vitro experiment with glyphosate formulations on human liver HepG2 cells has observed endocrine disruption at sub agricultural doses where a Roundup formulation showed to be the most active formulation The effects were more dependent on the formulation than on the glyphosate concentration A 2009 study on rats has found that Roundup is a potent endocrine disruptor causing disturbances in the reproductive development when the exposure was performed during the puberty period Genetic damage A 1998 study on mice concluded that Roundup is able to cause genetic damage The authors concluded that the damage was not related to the active ingredient but to another component of the herbicide mixture A 2005 study raised concerns over the effects of Roundup in transcription A 2009 study on mice has found that a single intraperitoneal injection of Roundup in concentration of 25 160 mg kg caused chromosomal aberrations and induction of micronuclei A 2009 in vitro experiment with glyphosate formulations on human liver cells has observed DNA damages at sub agricultural doses where a Roundup formulation showed to be the most active formulation The effects were more dependent on the formulation than on the glyphosate concentration Ecologic effects A 2000 review of the toxicological data on Roundup concluded that for terrestrial uses of Roundup minimal acute and chronic risk was predicted for potentially exposed nontarget organisms It also concluded that there were some risks to aquatic organisms exposed to Roundup in shallow water Toxicity A 2009 study has concluded that while physiological pH decreases glyphosate uptake in animal cells Roundup formulation contains surfactants that increases membrane permeability allowing cellular uptake at physiological pH Aquatic effects Fish and aquatic invertebrates are more sensitive to Roundup than terrestrial organisms Glyphosate is generally less persistent in water than in soil with 12 to 60 day persistence observed in Canadian pond water yet persistence of over a year have been observed in the sediments of ponds in Michigan and Oregon The EU classifies Roundup as R51 53 Toxic to aquatic organisms may cause long term adverse effects in the aquatic environment Although Roundup is not registered for aquatic uses and studies of its effects on amphibians indicate it is toxic to them scientists have found that it may wind up in small wetlands where tadpoles live due to inadvertent spraying during its application A recent study found that even at concentrations one third of the maximum concentrations expected in nature Roundup still killed up to 71 percent of tadpoles raised in outdoor tanks Environmental degradation and effects When glyphosate comes into contact with the soil it can be rapidly bound to soil particles and be inactivated Unbound glyphosate can be degraded by bacteria Glyphosphate has been shown to increase the infection rate of wheat by fusarium head blight in fields that have been treated with glyphosphate A 2009 study using a RoundUp formulation has concluded that absorption into plants delays subsequent soil degradation and can increase glyphosate persistence in soil from two to six times In soils half lives vary from as little as 3 days at a site in Texas to as much as 141 days at a site in Iowa In addition the glyphosate metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid was shown to persist up to 2 years in Swedish forest soils A recent study concluded that certain amphibians may be at risk from glyphosate use One study has shown an effect on growth and survival of earthworms The results of this study are in conflict with other data and have been criticized on methodological grounds In other studies nitrogen fixing bacteria have been impaired and also crop plant susceptibility to disease has been increased False advertising and scientific fraud False advertising In 1996 Monsanto was accused of false and misleading advertising of glyphosate products prompting a law suit by the New York State attorney general Monsanto had made claims that its spray on glyphosate based herbicides including Roundup were safer than table salt and practically non toxic to mammals birds and fish Environmental and consumer rights campaigners brought a case in France in 2001 for presenting Roundup as biodegradable and claiming that it left the soil clean after use glyphosate Roundup s main ingredient is classed by the European Union as dangerous for the environment and toxic for aquatic organisms In January 2007 Monsanto was convicted of false advertising The result was confirmed in 2009 Scientific fraud On two occasions the United States Environmental Protection Agency has caught scientists deliberately falsifying test results at research laboratories hired by Monsanto to study glyphosate In the first incident involving Industrial Biotest Laboratories an EPA reviewer stated after finding routine falsification of data that it was hard to believe the scientific integrity of the studies when they said they took specimens of the uterus from male rabbits In the second incident of falsifying test results in 1991 the owner of the lab Craven Labs and three employees were indicted on 20 felony counts the owner was sentenced to 5 years in prison and fined 50 000 dollars the lab was fined 15 5 million dollars and ordered to pay 3 7 million dollars in restitution Craven laboratories performed studies for 262 pesticide companies including Monsanto Monsanto has stated that the studies have been repeated and that Roundup s EPA certification does not now use any studies from Craven Labs or IBT Monsanto also said that the Craven Labs investigation was started by the EPA after a pesticide industry task force discovered irregularities Difference between regulatory registered and commercialized formulations In November 2009 a French environment group MDRGF accused Monsanto of using chemicals in Roundup formulations not informed the country s regulatory bodies and demanded the removal of those products from the market Herbicide selection Resistance evolves after a weed population has been subjected to intense selection pressure in the form of repeated use of a single herbicide These weeds resistant to the herbicide have been called Superweeds The first documented cases of weed resistance to glyphosate were found in Australia involving rigid ryegrass near Orange New South Wales Some farmers in the United States have expressed concern that weeds are now developing with glyphosate resistance with 13 states now reporting resistance and this poses a problem to many farmers including cotton farmers that are now heavily dependent on glyphosate to control weeds Farmers associations are now reporting 103 biotypes of weeds within 63 weed species with herbicide resistance This problem is likely to be exacerbated by the use of Roundup Ready crops Fifteen weed species have been confirmed as resistant to glyphosate Palmer amaranth In 2004 a glyphosate resistant variation of palmer amaranth commonly known as pigweed was found in Georgia and confirmed by a 2005 study In 2005 resistance was also found in North Carolina Glyphosate resistance followed the widespread use of Roundup Ready crops which lead to an unprecedented selection pressure to glyphosate The weed variation is now widespread in southeast US Cases are also reported in Texas and Virginia Conyza biotypes Conyza bonariensis also known as hairy fleabane and buva and Conyza canadensis known as horseweed or marestail are other weed species that had lately developed glyphosate resistance A 2008 study on the current situation of glyphosate resistance in South America concluded that resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use and the utilization of glyphosate resistant soybean crops is a factor encouraging increase in glyphosate use Ryegrass Glyphosate resistant ryegrass Lolium has occurred in most of the Australian agricultural area and other areas of the world All cases of evolution of resistance to glyphosate in Australia were characterized by intensive use of the herbicide while no other effective weed control practices were used Studies indicate that resistant ryegrass does not compete well against non resistant plants and their numbers decrease when not grown under conditions of glyphosate application Johnsongrass Glyphosate resistant Johnson grass Sorghum halepense has occurred in Roundup Ready soybean culture in Argentina Genetically modified crops In 1996 genetically modified Roundup Ready soybeans resistant to Roundup became commercially available followed by Roundup Ready corn in 1998 Roundup Ready soybeans patent is due to expire in 2014 Current Roundup Ready crops include soy maize corn canola sugar beet and cotton with wheat and alfalfa still under development As of 2005 87 of U S soybean fields were planted with glyphosate resistant varieties While the use of Roundup Ready crops may have increased the usage of herbicides measured in pounds applied per acre the use of Roundup Ready crops has changed the herbicide use profile away from atrazine metribuzin and alachlor citation needed which are more likely to be present in run off water Genetic engineering Some microorganisms have a version of 5 enolpyruvylshikimate 3 phosphate synthase EPSPS EC 2 5 1 19 3 phosphoshikimate 1 carboxyvinyltransferase 5 enolpyruvylshikimate 3 phosphate synthetase phosphoenolpyruvate 3 phosphoshikimate 5 O 1 carboxyvinyl transferase that is resistant to glyphosate inhibition The version used in genetically modified crops was isolated from Agrobacterium strain CP4 CP4 EPSPS that was resistant to glyphosate The CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and inserted into soybeans The CP4 EPSPS gene was engineered for plant expression by fusing the 5 end of the gene to a chloroplast transit peptide derived from the petunia EPSPS This transit peptide was used because it had shown previously an ability to deliver bacterial EPSPS to the chloroplasts of other plants The plasmid used to move the gene into soybeans was PV GMGTO4 It contained three bacterial genes two CP4 EPSPS genes and a gene encoding beta glucuronidase GUS from Escherichia coli as a marker The DNA was injected into the soybeans using the particle acceleration method Soybean cultivar A54O3 was used for the transformation The expression of the GUS gene was used as the initial evidence of transformation GUS expression was detected by a staining method in which the GUS enzyme converts a substrate into a blue precipitate Those plants that showed GUS expression were then taken and sprayed with glyphosate and their tolerance was tested over many generations Productivity claims In 1999 a review of Roundup Ready soybean crops found that compared to the top conventional varieties they had a 6 7 lower yield This so called yield drag follows the s
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Applications of Genetic Tools to Clinical and Translational Research